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Different types of electric cars

BEV = Battery Electric Vehicle = battery electric vehicle

Pure electric vehicles, which are only equipped with an electric motor, are now known as the abbreviation BEV for Battery Electric Vehicle (Renault ZOE, Smart ED, Tesla Model S, VW e-Golf).

These e-vehicles draw their drive energy from a battery in the vehicle. This battery is charged via the power grid and can also store braking energy recovered by recuperation while driving.

HEV = Hybrid Electric Vehicle = hybrid vehicles

The hybrid vehicle battery is charged by the internal combustion engine. External charging via the mains is not possible. The recuperation function is also used in these hybrid cars. The electric drive is only enabled by the control system when the battery is sufficiently charged. Although you can only drive a few kilometers purely electrically with an HEV vehicle, the energy-intensive starting can be taken over by the electric motor, which means that these hybrids have better consumption values, despite the achieve higher weight through the two electric motors.

BEV-REx = battery electric vehicles with range extender

In addition to the battery, electric vehicles with a range extender (BMW i3, Opel Ampera) also have a small combustion engine or a range extender. The battery is powered by an additional motor, but this is not directly coupled to the vehicle's drive If the battery status falls below a certain range, the range extender is automatically activated and feeds the battery with electricity. Depending on the model, this brings an additional range of around 100 kilometers. If there is no charging station, you can also go to a gas station and fill up with petrol.

PHEV = Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle

A Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle has 2 drive motors and one combustion engine (Mitsubishi Plug-in Hybrid Outlander, VW Passat GTE), but the difference with the HEV is that these hybrid vehicles can be charged from the mains with a plug. Therefore, these vehicles also belong to the e-car category. A PHEV also has a larger battery than an HEV, with which they can usually drive at least 50 kilometers purely electrically. So it's usually enough for city traffic. The recuperation function is also used in these hybrid cars.

FCEV = Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle = fuel cell vehicle

In a fuel cell electric vehicle, the electrical energy is generated by electrolysis from hydrogen and oxygen while driving. (Mercedes-Benz GLC F-CELL, Hyundai NEXO) The basis for this is a fuel cell, which is fed from a hydrogen tank.  The energy sets the electric motor in motion or is temporarily stored in the battery. A very big advantage of fuel cell vehicles is that the cold combustion of water and oxygen produces no emissions other than water vapor. The hydrogen tank can be refilled in a few minutes. Current fuel cell cars have a range of 500 to 600 kilometers. However, there are currently very few models on the market because the production of fuel cells and hydrogen is very energy-intensive and expensive.

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