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ADAS technologies are usually divided into automation levels:
Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) are typically categorized into different levels of automation that indicate the level of automation a vehicle supports. Automation levels range from 0 (no automation) to 5 (full automation). Each level contains a specific combination of technologies and functions that support the driver and help him with the driving task. ADAS technologies are usually divided into automation levels:

level 0
Level 0 autonomous driving refers to a vehicle with no autonomous capabilities, meaning the driver has complete control over all driving functions and must perform all tasks such as steering, accelerating, and braking.

level 1
At level 1, this refers to functions that serve to support the driver and improve driving safety, but do not actively intervene. Examples of ADAS Level 1 functions are:
  • backup camera
  • parking assistant
  • Adaptive Speed
  • Blind Spot War
It is important to note that ADAS Level 1 does not equate to full automated driving capability and that the driver is responsible for the vehicle and safety on the road at all times.

Level  2
Partial automation refers to the taking over of steering and acceleration/deceleration by one or more driver assistance systems based on information about the driving environment. However, the driver is expected to handle the remaining aspects of the dynamic driving tasks.
level 3
Level 3 Autonomous Driving (ADAS) refers to a level of autonomous vehicle technology in which the vehicle can perform all driving functions under certain conditions, but a human driver must be available to take control if necessary. At this level, the vehicle is equipped with advanced sensors and software that allow it to navigate roads, avoid obstacles and make decisions on its own. However, a human driver must be alert and ready to intervene in emergency situations.
level 4
ADAS Level 4 refers to the fourth level of automated driver assistance systems (ADAS), which represents the highest level of automation. In Level 4, the vehicle is able to drive itself under certain conditions, but the driver must be willing to take control if necessary. Level 4 vehicles are equipped with advanced sensors, cameras and software algorithms that allow the vehicle to operate autonomously without human intervention. However, there are still limitations and the vehicle will not be able to handle all driving scenarios, so the driver must always be alert and ready to intervene if necessary.
level 5
Level 5 autonomous driving system refers to the highest level of autonomous driving where the vehicle is able to perform all driving functions in all conditions without human intervention. At this level, the vehicle is fully self-driving, with no steering wheel, pedals, or other human-operated controls. The vehicle can navigate roads and intersections and handle all driving scenarios independently, allowing passengers to relax and engage in other activities while driving.
Driver assistance systems are an important part of modern vehicles that help increase road safety and prevent accidents. The various sensors used in these systems have made tremendous progress in recent years. Here are some of the capabilities that modern sensors in driver assistance systems can offer:
  1. Radar: Radar sensors can measure the distance, speed, and position of objects near the vehicle. They can be used to provide automatic braking and distance control functions to help drivers maintain a safe distance from other vehicles.
  2. Lidar: Lidar sensors use laser beams to scan the vehicle's surroundings. You can create precise three-dimensional maps of the environment to detect obstacles and other vehicles. These sensors are often used in autonomous vehicles.
  3. Cameras: Cameras can be used to recognize traffic signs, recognize lane markings and warn the driver of potential collisions. They can also be used for facial recognition to ensure the driver is alert and alert.
  4. Ultrasonic: Ultrasonic sensors can be used to monitor the vehicle's surroundings and detect obstacles such as other vehicles, pedestrians and cyclists. They can also be used for parking and other maneuvers that require precise control.
  5. Infrared: Infrared sensors can be used to measure the temperature of objects. They are often used in night vision systems to detect obstacles and other vehicles in dark environments.
Overall, modern sensors in driver assistance systems offer a variety of functions and capabilities that can help increase safety on the road.
lidar sensors
An in-car lidar sensor is a system that uses pulses of light to measure distance and environmental conditions. The term "lidar" stands for "Light Detection and Ranging" and refers to the use of laser light to detect and measure objects. In the context of autonomous vehicles, lidar is often used as part of a larger sensor system that may also include cameras, radar, and other sensors. Lidar sensors use short laser pulses to scan the vehicle's surroundings and create precise three-dimensional maps of obstacles and road features.
These maps are used by autonomous vehicles to orientate themselves in space and to move safely on the road. Lidar sensors are also used in driver assistance technology to help the driver avoid collisions, for example.
ultrasonic sensors
Ultrasonic sensors have been used in parking aids for many years to help vehicles park. The sensors are usually mounted in the car's bumper and emit ultrasonic waves that are reflected back from obstacles. Based on the transit time of the signal and the intensity of the returned signal, the system can calculate how far away the obstacle is and whether it is moving. Due to their ease of use, high accuracy and reliability, ultrasonic sensors have proven to be a very effective technology for parking assistance. In the meantime, however, they are also used in many other areas, such as in robots and autonomous vehicles.
radar sensors
Radar systems are capable of making accurate measurements of speed and distance. Most modern radar systems work in the 77 GHz frequency range, as this enables high resolution and is also suitable for use in vehicles. The radar sensors emit short pulses that are reflected by an object. The time it takes for the signal to return is measured to determine the distance to the object. The speed of the object can also be calculated by using Doppler effects. This enables radar systems to perform speed and distance measurements for a variety of applications, such as driver assistance systems in cars.
front camera
A car's front camera system has several uses, including:
  1. Driving assistance systems: The front camera system can be used for various driving assistance systems such as lane departure warning systems, automatic emergency braking, traffic sign recognition, high-beam assistants and adaptive cruise control. These systems use the information from the camera to support the driver and increase safety.
  2. Rear view mirror replacement: In some cars, the front camera system replaces the traditional rear view mirror. The system can expand the driver's field of vision and better detect obstacles.
  3. Collision Warning System: The front camera system can also be used for a collision warning system. It detects potential collisions and warns the driver to avoid a collision.
  4. Parking assistance: The front camera system can also be used for parking assistance. It can scan the car's surroundings and help the driver to park the car safely and easily.
  5. Traffic Accident Recording: In some cars, the front camera system is used to record traffic accidents. These recordings can be used to clarify the question of guilt or as evidence.
Overall, the front camera system in a car offers many areas of application to increase safety and comfort while driving.
infrared sensors
  1. Parking Assistants: Infrared sensors are used in parking assistants to measure the distance between the vehicle and another object, such as an obstacle or another vehicle. The sensors emit infrared rays and measure the time it takes to return. Based on this measurement, the system can calculate the distance to the obstacle and help the driver navigate when parking or maneuvering.
  2. Climate Control: Infrared sensors are used in car climate controls to measure the temperature and humidity inside the vehicle. The sensors can also be used to detect the body heat of occupants and adjust the temperature accordingly.
  3. High-beam assistant: Infrared sensors can be used in high-beam assistants to detect other vehicles or road users and automatically dim the high beam to avoid dazzling others.
  4. Night Vision Devices: Infrared sensors can be used in night vision devices to detect obstacles on the road and give the driver better night vision.
  5. Rain sensor: Infrared sensors can be used in rain sensors to measure the intensity of rain and adjust wipers accordingly.
sensor data fusion
Sensor data fusion in ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) refers to the integration of data from different sensors to enable accurate and comprehensive sensing of a vehicle's surroundings.
Modern ADAS systems use a variety of sensors such as radar, lidar, cameras and ultrasonic sensors to gather information about the vehicle's surroundings. The fusion of this data allows the systems to create an accurate picture of the environment and identify potential hazards. Sensor data fusion in ADAS is typically done using algorithms that combine and analyze the various sensor data to create an accurate picture of the vehicle's surroundings. The algorithms can use the strengths of the various sensors and minimize weaknesses in order to ensure reliable detection of the surroundings. Sensor data fusion in the ADAS area has many advantages, such as improved safety and comfort, faster and more accurate detection of objects, and greater system robustness and redundancy. 
For example, the camera in a self-driving car may not be able to provide clear images due to poor lighting conditions or glare from sunlight. In this case, a lidar sensor can be deployed to provide precise measurements of the surroundings, while a radar sensor can be used to detect moving objects such as cars and pedestrians. By using sensor fusion techniques, the data from these different sensors can be combined to create a more comprehensive picture of the environment, and thereby develop safer autonomous driving systems.


Wenn eine KFZ-Werkstatt eine Reparatur an einem Fahrzeug durchführt und dabei versäumt, die Fahrerassistenzsysteme ordnungsgemäß zu kalibrieren, kann dies potenziell zu Haftungsfragen führen. Hierbei können verschiedene Parteien involviert sein, einschließlich die Werkstatt, der Fahrzeughalter oder auch der Hersteller der Fahrerassistenzsysteme.

Die Werkstatt könnte für den Schaden haftbar gemacht werden, wenn nachgewiesen werden kann, dass sie fahrlässig gehandelt hat. Als Fachleute für KFZ-Reparaturen und - Wartungen haben Werkstätten eine Sorgfaltspflicht gegenüber ihren Kunden. Wenn sie diese Pflicht vernachlässigen, indem sie beispielsweise eine erforderliche Kalibrierung nicht durchführen, können sie für daraus resultierende Schäden verantwortlich gemacht werden.

Der Fahrzeughalter könnte möglicherweise auch eine gewisse Verantwortung tragen, insbesondere wenn er von der Notwendigkeit der Kalibrierung informiert wurde und dennoch darauf verzichtet hat. In einigen Fällen können Werkstätten Haftungsausschlüsse oder Zustimmungserklärungen verwenden, um den Fahrzeughalter über mögliche Risiken zu informieren und ihre Haftung einzuschränken. Es ist wichtig, solche Vereinbarungen sorgfältig zu prüfen und sich bewusst zu sein, welchen Bedingungen man zustimmt.

Der Hersteller der Fahrerassistenzsysteme könnte ebenfalls eine Rolle spielen, insbesondere wenn nachgewiesen werden kann, dass das System fehlerhaft war oder nicht ordnungsgemäß funktioniert hat. In solchen Fällen könnte der Hersteller für die daraus resultierenden Schäden haftbar gemacht werden.

Wenn eine Werkstatt über die erforderliche Kompetenz und Ausrüstung verfügt, um Fahrerassistenzsysteme korrekt zu kalibrieren, kann sie diese Aufgabe selbst durchführen. Die Kalibrierung von Fahrerassistenz-systemen erfordert oft spezielle Diagnosewerkzeuge und Schulungen, um sicherzustellen, dass die Systeme ordnungsgemäß funktionieren und genau arbeiten.
Wenn eine Werkstatt angibt, dass sie die erforderliche Kompetenz und Ausrüstung für die Kalibrierung von Fahrerassistenzsystemen besitzt, sollte sie in der Lage sein, die Kalibrierung professionell und korrekt durchzuführen. Es ist wichtig, dass die Werkstatt die erforderlichen Verfahren befolgt und die entsprechenden Spezifikationen des Fahrzeugherstellers einhält.

Es ist auch wichtig zu beachten, dass in einigen Fällen der Fahrzeughersteller oder der Hersteller der Fahrerassistenzsysteme spezifische Anforderungen oder Vorgaben für die Kalibrierung haben kann. Die Werkstatt sollte sicherstellen, dass sie diese Anforderungen erfüllt, um sicherzustellen, dass die Kalibrierung ordnungsgemäß durchgeführt wird und die Garantie- oder Gewährleistungsansprüche des Fahrzeugs nicht beeinträchtigt werden.


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